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Ophthalmology

MML Medical Center offers its patients the services of a modern Ophthalmology Clinic, located at 2 Bagno Street. At our ophthalmology clinic in Warsaw, we offer a wide range of services, including comprehensive diagnostics with extended specialist examinations and state-of-the-art ophthalmic procedures with one-day surgery.

What does ophthalmology deal with?

Although the greatest development of ophthalmology is in our time, this field of medicine has already appeared at the dawn of history. The term ophthalmology comes from the Greek term ophthalmos – eye. It is a branch of medicine that deals with the structure, function, diagnosis of diseases and treatment of the eyes.

Since sight is an extremely important human sense and the eye is a delicate organ, there have been attempts to cure its diseases and look for ways to improve vision since ancient times. Probably not everyone knows that in ancient times many ophthalmological procedures were performed, and the first mention of eye surgery appeared already in the Code of Hammurabi, as it mentions the removal of an abscess from the lacrimal sac. In contrast, the prototype of a lens was invented as early as Ancient Greece, when it was observed that a spherical vessel filled with water had the power to magnify objects. We also know that in the 2nd century the most prominent surgeon practicing in the Roman Empire, who also dealt with ophthalmology, was a Greek named Antyllus, who, among other things, was able to operate on cataracts by pushing the lens deep into the eyeball.

Ophthalmology was also developing on the eastern continent. Chinese doctors, among many other inventions, also discovered eyeglasses, which they probably used as early as the 5th century. However, other sources indicate that they were developed there only in the 15th century, while in Europe they were invented at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries.

In modern times, the first described ophthalmic surgery was performed in 1583 by the German Georg Bartisch, who removed an eyeball from a patient suffering from cancer. However, ophthalmology, separate from general medicine, was not conducted until the end of the 18th century when it was started by Rafał Józef Czerwiakowski. The founder of the Polish branch of this science, however, is considered to be Wiktor Feliks Szokalski, who founded the Ophthalmic Institute in Warsaw in 1823. In Europe, the first modern surgery to remove a cloudy lens was performed in 1747 by French physician Jacques Daviel. In 1827 the first eyeglasses were created, designed by George Biddell Airy, and in 1784 bifocal glasses were constructed in the United States by Benjamin Franklin. In Poland, the production of eyeglass lenses began in the 1930s.

Nowadays, an ophthalmologist becomes your first contact person when something abnormal happens to your eyes or your vision, and when you experience problems with your vision, eye pain, headaches or any disturbing changes in the visual system. An ophthalmologist treats vision defects and eye diseases such as strabismus, glaucoma, cataracts, conjunctivitis and cancer. He/she is an eye specialist and diagnoses the above conditions, both in adults and children. He/she can also, after identifying your specific vision defect, fit you with the proper glasses or contact lenses.

An ophthalmologist also treats diseases of:

  • the eyeball: cataracts, keratitis, leucoma,
  • eyelids – e.g. basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids
  • orbit: glaucoma, orbital inflammation, abscess,
  • optic nerve: temporal loss of half of the visual field,
  • conjunctiva: dry eye syndrome, conjunctivitis and pigmentary changes, subconjunctival hemorrhages,
  • the lacrimal organ: inflammation of the lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac, or lacrimal duct.

When should I see an eye doctor?

Nowadays, patients see an ophthalmologist not only when they notice a vision problem, but also for initial or periodic examinations. It is also a good idea to check up regularly with an ophthalmologist as a preventive measure – this will allow you to detect diseases at their early stages. This is important, especially for those who have a genetic load of eye diseases and defects.

Not everyone realizes that every person who works at a computer should have their eyes examined regularly. Apart from the fact that exposure to a monitor weakens them, slowed blinking also dries out the mucous membranes. This is especially important to keep in mind for children, as vision problems can cause them a lot of trouble in school.

In adults, on the other hand, the need for eye examination occurs additionally during medical examinations necessary for passing a driving license, and it is often necessary during employment.

In fact, in order to be allowed to work in certain occupations, the occupational physician must refer the patient to an ophthalmologist to see if he or she can hold a specific position due to normal vision.

However, it is imperative that you make an appointment to see an ophthalmologist if you observe the following conditions:

  • deterioration of visual acuity,
  • congestion of the eye
  • double vision
  • the appearance of the so called “floaters” in the field of vision,
  • photophobia,
  • visual field disturbances,
  • itching and burning of the eyeball,
  • squinting while reading,
  • frequent blinking,
  • severe orbital pain,
  • severe and persistent headaches.

How do I prepare for an eye examination?

  • When preparing for your visit to the ophthalmologist’s office, you should gather information about all of your complaints, which will make it easier for the doctor to make an initial diagnosis. So it is a good idea to think before the examination and be able to give the doctor thoughtful and authoritative answers to questions. For the ophthalmologist, it is important to know what the patient’s complaints are and how long they have been there, whether they are occurring for the first time or whether they are recurrent. It is also important whether one or both eyes are affected. Certainly, the eye doctor will ask the patient about his or her vision as a child, whether he or she ever wore glasses, and whether there is a family history of eye disease. The doctor will also want to know about the patient’s overall health and the medications he or she is taking.
  • You should go to the eye clinic without makeup because it makes it difficult to recognize the symptoms of various diseases and is an obstacle to the examination of intraocular pressure. Also, dust from crayon or ink can get into the eye during the examination. It is best not to wear makeup at all on that day, but if the situation does not allow it, it is a good idea to at least wash it off thoroughly before the examination
  • Also, contact lenses make eye exams more difficult. They should be removed before visiting the eye doctor because they put pressure on the lens on the cornea, which can cause erroneous measurements.

Most common eye diseases and eye defects

The most common eye diseases and vision defects include:

  • Short-sightedness,
  • Hyperopia,
  • Presbyopia (old-sightedness),
  • Dry eye syndrome,
  • Glaucoma,
  • Cataracts,
  • Macular degeneration (AMD),
  • Retinal degenerations,
  • Retinal detachment,
  • Diabetic retinopathy,
  • Degeneration of the vitreous body (vitreous body floaters),
  • Retinal pigmentary degeneration – pigmentary retinopathy,
  • Conjunctivitis,
  • Strabismus.

Short-sightedness

Short-sightedness is otherwise known as myopia. In an eye with such a defect, the breaking power of the eye’s optical system is too great, or the eyeball is too long relative to the breaking power of the optical system. This results in light rays entering the eye being focused in front of the retina. Myopic people cannot see faraway objects clearly. To correct this condition glasses or contact lenses with negative power, popularly known as “minus”, are used. We distinguish between low myopia – up to 3 diopters, medium myopia – from 3 to 6 diopters and high myopia – above 6 diopters.

Long-sightedness

It is a vision defect, as a result of which the light rays entering the eye are focused behind the retina, due to too little breaking power of the eye’s optical system or too short length of the eyeball. Consequently, an eye with hyperopia sees poorly at long distance and up close. Long-sightedness is corrected with glasses or contact lenses of positive power.

Astigmatism

It is a visual defect in which the breaking power of the eye’s optical system is not the same in every cross section. The result of astigmatism is blurred vision, regardless of the distance at which the affected person looks. Its characteristic symptom is blurred vision while driving at night. It is corrected with glasses or contact lenses with cylinders, referred to as toric lenses.

Presbyopia, or old-sightedness

Presbyopia is a physiological process that affects all people over the age of forty. Over the years, the lenses of the eyes lose their elasticity, which manifests itself in decreased visual acuity, especially up close and in unfavorable light. This occurs due to a reduction or complete loss of the accommodative capacity of the eye. This defect limits the eye’s ability to adjust to seeing different distances clearly, as much as it could at a younger age. Presbyopia, fortunately, can be easily corrected.

Dry eye syndrome

Dry eye syndrome is an eye condition that is very common in the population. Epidemiological studies have found it in 11-17 percent of adults. Its most characteristic symptoms are burning eyes and a feeling of dryness. Other symptoms also include serous discharge in the conjunctival sac, congestion and a feeling of sand under the eyelids. Symptoms of this disease are particularly severe in winter and when working on a computer; in women, it is very common during premenstrual syndrome and before menopause. This condition is caused by improper lubrication of the ocular surface by the tear film, and the cause of this dysfunction is sometimes its incorrect composition or excessive evaporation. The effect of these disorders is then drying of the cornea and conjunctiva.

Dry eye syndrome also accompanies autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, collagenosis, scleroderma, dermatologic and neurologic diseases. It can also occur after laser corneal refractive procedures, general use of various medications, and in smokers.

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a very dangerous eye disease that affects about 70 million people worldwide. It damages the optic nerve, gradually leading to deterioration and loss of vision. Glaucoma has so far been thought to be caused by high pressure in the eyeball, but it turns out that the genesis of glaucoma can vary. Treatment of glaucoma involves reducing intraocular pressure through the use of medications that facilitate the outflow of the eyeball’s watery fluid and reduce its production. This is mainly done with medications in the form of drops, and sometimes oral medications are given. Glaucoma can also be treated with surgery.

Unfortunately, this disease usually develops slowly and does not produce any symptoms for a long time. People who are particularly vulnerable to it include: diabetics, people with atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia, people with myopia of less than 4 diopters and changes in the retina and choroid, people with hereditary burden and particularly vulnerable to stress, people with migraines and people with problems with high blood pressure.

Cataract

Cataract is a condition whose name comes from the Latin word cataracta. It is a degenerative eye disease that leads to clouding of the lens.

It should be known that in healthy people, the lens allows the light into the eye, refracting it at such an angle so that it reaches the retina and in this way it reaches the brain through the optic nerve. If there is fogging of this lens, the amount of light reaching it will be insufficient, and will cause the image seen to be blurry. Decrease of lens transparency in elderly people is a physiological and slowly progressive phenomenon, however, sometimes such deterioration of vision may occur even within a few months in a certain group of people. Cataracts are the predominant cause of vision deterioration among people over the age of 55, but fortunately they can be successfully treated with surgery. The MML Ophthalmology Clinic team has successfully performed more than 1,500 cataract removal procedures and this particular procedure is the most popular among our patients.

Macular degeneration (AMD)

Macular degeneration is a disease of a small area in the center of the retina responsible for seeing details located in the center of the visual field. The condition mainly affects people over the age of 50 and is caused by the expanding atrophy of the macular visual receptors.

AMD causes difficulty with near vision for everyday activities and is characterized by slow and painless progression. Sometimes, however, it can progress very rapidly, leading to irreversible so-called central blindness. Patients with macular degeneration most often complain of: impaired vision in the center of the image, difficulty reading and writing, distorted vision of straight lines and difficulty distinguishing colors.

Retinal degeneration

Degeneration that occurs at the periphery of the retina is particularly dangerous because it can lead to tear, rupture or detachment. They most often affect people with myopia and the elderly who are more susceptible to retinal diseases. To prevent severe complications of peripheral retinal degeneration, retinal peripheral laser procedure is necessary.

Retinal detachment manifests as a sudden drop in visual acuity, flashes, vision of floaters in the eye, and visual field loss. Another change, popularly known as lattice retinal degeneration, can in turn lead to retinal detachment . It involves the appearance of small, round, atrophic holes. When the fundus is examined, a characteristic network of white lines is then visible, forming a “lattice” pattern.

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the most commonly found and most severe complication affecting the eyeballs. This name is used to refer to changes in the eyeball that occur in diabetes resulting from hyperglycemia. Diabetic retinopathy involves pathological changes occurring in the retina, the main cause of which is high blood glucose levels. These changes can only be detected by an ophthalmologic examination, so when you visit your doctor, you must tell him or her that you have diabetes so that he or she can check for these changes. A very important element of diagnosis is fundoscopic examination, because early diabetic changes do not give any symptoms and only examination by a specialist can detect them early enough.

Retinal detachment

A retinal detachment is the separation of the retina from the choroid membrane of the eye. It manifests as flashes and clouding that disrupt the visual field and is a serious condition that involves separation of the retina from the choroidal membrane. The detachment occurs at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium – one of its ten layers. A retina deprived of oxygen and other substances supplied with blood is unable to function properly. The condition can be caused by proliferative cell changes, inflammation or a cancerous process. It requires prompt treatment because as it continues, the risk of irreversible vision loss increases. Treatment for retinal detachment involves surgery as soon as possible.

Degeneration of the vitreous body (vitreous body floaters)

Vitreous body floaters, also known as flying flies (Latin Muscae volitantes) is a medical condition involving the accumulation of various substances of any degree of mobility, transparency, density, thickness, located in the vitreous body of the eye, which take various shapes: shadows, threads, dots, wrinkles, usually appearing in the central visual field. The symptoms of vitreous degeneration are usually blurred vision, fluff and flying “flies” that make it difficult to see. Sometimes there is also a hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Diabetes, atherosclerosis and high blood pressure, degenerative changes in the cervical spine that lead to ocular hypoxia through compression, and stress that causes vasospasm contribute to the disease.

Retinal pigmentary degeneration – pigmentary retinopathy

Retinal pigmentary degeneration, otherwise known as pigmentary retinopathy, is a disease of the retina that causes progressive and irreversible loss of visual field. It is hereditary in nature. In its early stages, small clusters of pigment appear in the fundus, which thicken over time and eventually prevent proper vision.

The first signs of pigmentary retinopathy may be dusk blindness, appearing as early as age 20, as well as slight darkness in front of the eyes and a slow loss of peripheral vision.

Treatment for retinal pigmentary degeneration is unfortunately not currently available. High doses of vitamin A and antioxidants are recommended.

Conjunctivitis

Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye diseases. During this condition, the thin mucous membrane that covers part of the eyeball and is located on the inside of the eyelid becomes inflamed . Because of this, the patient’s eyes become red and secretions flow out of the tear ducts. In addition to redness, severe burning of the eyes, tearing, pinching, sticking of the eyelids, and sometimes even photophobia can be felt. With conjunctivitis, congestion of the eyeball and the presence of watery or purulent discharge may also be observed. This disease can be infectious, allergic or mechanical. It usually passes spontaneously after a maximum of two weeks. In some cases, however, it requires treatment with antibiotic drops or antihistamines.

Strabismus

Strabismus is a condition where the eyeballs are not parallel and causes various types of monocular and binocular vision disorders. This defect is associated with a weakening of the eye muscles that results in a change in the angle of one eye relative to the other and impaired stereoscopic vision. People with strabismus have difficulty driving a car, operating various moving equipment and machines, and playing certain sports. In children under 6-8 years of age with unilateral strabismus, there is a so-called suppression of the image coming from the affected eye in the brain, which leads to visual impairment and loss or failure of central retinal fixation.

Causes of strabismus include:

  • genetic factors.
  • refractive errors,
  • diseases of the central nervous system,
  • diseases of the eyeball or orbit,
  • diseases of the oculomotor muscles or the nerves that innervate these muscles,

What does a visit to the eye doctor look like?

A visit to the ophthalmologist usually begins with a history, after which the doctor will perform a physical examination. The latter involves assessing the condition of the eyelids, orbits, mobility and size of the eyeballs, and checking visual acuity as well as color perception.

When testing your visual acuity, your eye doctor will also perform refractometry, a computerized test. He or she may also use the traditional Snellen test, which involves the patient reading, separately with the left and right eyes, letters of different sizes from a distance determined by the ophthalmologist. Using a computer, the doctor can also determine the optimal value of corrective lenses to allow the patient to have full visual acuity.

Another basic test that we should undergo during an eye appointment is the measurement of intraocular pressure, which is measured with a device called a tonometer. Normal intraocular pressure should not exceed 21-22 mm Hg. However, there are some people whose pressure is higher than 22 mm Hg and others whose blood pressure is well below standard, e.g. 12-15 mm Hg.

After measuring your intraocular pressure, your eye doctor will proceed with a detailed examination of your eye. He or she first checks eyeball alignment and mobility and then moves on to slit lamp examination. Probably, the doctor will instruct the patient to rest his/her chin and forehead on a special support so that the doctor can easily assess both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. In an examination of the anterior segment of the eye, he/she evaluates the cornea, iris, lens and anterior chamber. This test is absolutely non-invasive. It lasts a few minutes; however, to examine the fundus, the doctor must use drops that dilate the pupils, causing the patient to experience a temporary decrease in vision, especially near vision. The posterior segment of the eye is evaluated by the ophthalmologist by placing a special lens in front of it, which allows to check in very high magnification all sections of its fundus, among others optic nerve disc and retina.

What specialized tests can the eye doctor order?

If abnormalities are found, the doctor may order additional tests such as:

  • fluorescein angiography, which is a contrast test of the blood vessels in the fundus of the eye,
  • electrophysiological test,
  • OCT,
  • GCC,
  • ultrasound examination of the eyeball in case of poor fundus view,
  • visual field testing in suspected glaucoma

Remember that an ophthalmological examination lasts several minutes and is completely painless and safe, so do not be afraid to visit an ophthalmologist and do not postpone it, especially if your eyesight deteriorates. People over 40 should get checked at least once every 2 years, and if they have a general condition such as diabetes or high blood pressure, even more frequently, every 3-6 months, depending on your doctor’s recommendations.

What ophthalmic specialized tests can be performed at the MML Center?

The MML Medical Center in Warsaw offers the following examinations performed by specialists: OCT of the macula and optic nerve, OCT of the GCC, computed tomography of the tear ducts with contrast, so-called glaucoma examinations, i.e. OCT of the GCC together with OCT of the optic nerve, as well as IOL Master examination.

OCT examination of the eye

OCT, or Optical Coherence Tomography of the fundus of the eye, is a modern examination that allows for evaluation of the organ of vision. This test is mainly used in the diagnosis of retinal diseases. Performing an OCT examination of the eye provides a cross-sectional model of the tissues. In its course, it resembles somewhat an ultrasound examination, because a beam of light is introduced into the eye, which, reflecting, informs about the position of its various parts.

OCT is performed in people who have age-related macular degeneration, as well as diabetic maculopathy or macular edema. Before the test, the patient is given special drops that dilate the pupils. It lasts about a dozen minutes and can be repeated many times because it is completely safe and people of all ages can be referred to it.

GCC ganglion cell examination

Since retinal ganglion cells are the first to atrophy in the process of glaucoma development, this vision-threatening disease can be detected by tomographic examination of their layer, already at the stage of the earliest structural changes, even before clinical symptoms of the disease appear in the visual field.

The GCC test is a relatively new method introduced into modern glaucoma diagnostics that has emerged along with neuroprotection, a new direction in the treatment of this dangerous disease designed to prevent or slow the death of retinal ganglion cells. GCC retinal ganglion cell examination is rapid, painless and non-invasive.

Computed tomography of the lacrimal ducts with contrast

Computed tomography is one of the most advanced and accurate imaging tests today, meaning it allows you to see structures inside the living body. The visibility of these structures can be further increased by giving the patient a so-called contrast. It is a substance that can absorb radiation much better or weaker and thus, when introduced into the patient’s body, improves the visibility of the imaged elements by penetrating them or, on the contrary, by cutting off their background.

IOL-Master examination

The IOL-Master test allows to calculate the optical power of an intraocular implant placed during cataract surgery. It allows to measure parameters such as anterior chamber depth, corneal thickness and axial length of the eyeball. This test is also used in refractive surgery and in the prevention of glaucoma.

What eye diseases do we treat and what procedures do we perform at MML Medical Center?

At MML Medical Center in Warsaw, we treat eye diseases of both the eyelids and conjunctiva, as well as cornea, cataracts and retinal degeneration. When you make an appointment with us, you can be sure that your ophthalmic problem will be treated by a specialist who has both active experience in diagnosing and treating a given disease, as well as constantly expands his or her knowledge of the latest and most effective ways to treat it. This is extremely important, especially for the most serious diseases such as glaucoma, retinal and macular diseases. This is because in such situations, the care of a qualified medical professional significantly increases the chances in the fight for vision.

Minor ophthalmic procedures can also be performed at the MML Medical Center consultation room, such as:

  • lavage of the tear ducts and assessment of their patency,
  • removal of stitches after surgical procedures,
  • administration of injections under the eyeball,
  • removal of foreign bodies from the conjunctival sac and cornea,
  • removal of improperly growing eyelashes.

Moreover, in our Medical Center we perform cataract removal surgeries under the National Health Fund. We also provide follow-up, preoperative and postoperative consultations. They are performed by ophthalmic surgery specialists – doctors with years of clinical experience.

During ophthalmology consultations, we use a biomicroscope to detect certain eye diseases, as well as monitor changes in the eyeball after various procedures. This examination is combined with the ability to visualize on a large plasma screen, allowing the patient to view the inside of their eye and its protective apparatus. This way, he/she can see exactly where the health problems are – such as eyelid disease, conjunctival disease, corneal disease, cataracts or retinal degeneration.

For diagnostics that require more precision, we use an ophthalmic microscope. The use of microscopes is the most important method for measuring the density of corneal endothelial cells to accurately diagnose a variety of ocular diseases, as the proper function and integrity of the eye’s cornea is largely dependent on the condition of the endothelium. Among other things, microscopes are used to evaluate the size and shape of endothelial cells as well as their density and distribution to diagnose glaucoma, corneal dystrophy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, uveitis, blunt eye trauma, but also diabetes. Microscopic examination of the eye is also performed to assess the condition of the organ after intraocular surgery.

At our medical center, we take photo and video documentation on digital media. During subsequent consultations, we inspect the resolution of lesions based on kept photographs, and we explain particular problems during the treatment of ophthalmic diseases.

Pediatric ophthalmology

The normal development of a child’s vision should be checked from birth. It is good to realize that our child can already have their first visit to the ophthalmologist once they are 3 months old. The consultation in the case of such a young child is aimed primarily at the exclusion of congenital defects connected with the organ of vision, including strabismus, and also allows the evaluation of the mobility of the eyeballs.

However, visual acuity testing is not done until children are a little older. This examination is performed by a pediatric ophthalmologist using a special board, adapted for the youngest children, on which instead of letters the child can find pictures of animals, houses or other objects recognizable to them. The doctor may also perform what is called a privileged vision test on the patient.

It is important to remember that eye diseases and vision defects can be asymptomatic, which is why it is so important to keep your child’s periodic checkups properly scheduled.

When should we go to the eye doctor with our child?

It is usually quite difficult to observe vision problems in young children. However, parents should be concerned if a child cannot see objects, comes too close to the television, or is reluctant to draw or color. Symptoms of vision diseases can include headaches, eye pain, sloppy writing, going out of line, and rapid fatigue when reading and writing.

A fairly specific clue that something abnormal is going on with a child’s vision may be the lack of the characteristic red glare on the eyes, noticeable in photographs. If you see white reflections instead of red dots, it may indicate retinoblastoma or congenital cataracts.

One of the most common reasons patients go to a pediatric ophthalmologist is visual acuity problems. However, when testing your child’s visual acuity, it is a good idea to also check their color vision and spatial vision. When abnormalities are found, it is important to quickly apply the appropriate treatment methods and possibly fit appropriate lenses to correct the defect. During the check-up by the ophthalmologist, the child’s three-dimensional vision should also be checked and the fundus and anterior segment of the eye examined to rule out pathologies.

Children should be seen for an eye exam especially if:

  • If you notice that your child’s eyes are watering or running, you should check for nasolacrimal duct obstruction,
  • You suspect strabismus,
  • You observed nystagmus, or twitching of the eyeballs,
  • Some sort of injury or infection has occurred, or an allergy has developed,
  • You suspect a visual impairment, either short- or long-sightedness,
  • If the baby was born prematurely, a funduscopic examination should be done to rule out retinopathy of prematurity leading to vision loss,
  • You observed uneven size and width of the lid slits or other abnormal eye structure in the child,
  • The child was referred to an ophthalmologist by a pediatrician for investigation of intracranial hypertension.

A child’s vision develops from birth until about age 8, so it is important to have his or her vision checked at least annually, especially before school and during the early elementary years, because undiagnosed and uncorrected disorders can cause the onset of dyslexia, dysgraphia and learning problems.

If at least one parent has a visual defect, the child has a high risk of having the same defect. An eye exam should theoretically be part of the routine health checks performed by the pediatrician at ages 2, 4, 6, and 10.

It should also be remembered that prolonged work in front of a monitor may influence the progression of the visual defect in myopic children,

How do I prepare my child for a visit to the eye doctor?

Often a visit to a psychologist, ophthalmologist or dentist is associated by some parents with trauma for the child. A visit to a pediatric ophthalmologist, however, does not have to be an unpleasant experience for them. All you need to do is prepare them properly to meet with a specialist. This will require frank conversation and appropriately focused play. To effectively reduce stress in a toddler, you need to use arguments that the child will understand, but also arouse curiosity and encourage cooperation with the doctor.

A very effective method in reducing stress before an appointment is to role-play. Therefore, beforehand, you can play “eye doctor” if only to get the child to cooperate and answer the questions.

You can also play with differentiating animal silhouettes, characters and shapes on the board, practice covering their eyes, familiarize them with wearing glasses by putting on sunglasses, and shine a flashlight in their eyes in a fun way to avoid shock during the visit.

Price of eye examinations and procedures

At MML Medical Center, prices for consultations range from PLN 200 to 520, while examinations, depending on their type, range from PLN 90 to 400.

The most varied prices apply to procedures, ranging from PLN 300 for cryotherapy or treatment of chronic eyelid inflammation, to the price of complex cataract surgery, ranging from PLN 3000 to 8000 depending on the package.

For patients with ophthalmic problems we have also established the website http://www.okulistykamml.pl/. Our patients can find there a lot of important information about eye diseases, their treatment methods and preventive eye care. We encourage you to read it!